glossary

Basalt: Basalt is a common extrusive volcanic rock. It is usually grey to black and fine-grained due to rapid cooling of lava at the surface of a planet.

Bevelled edge: Bevelled edge stone has an angular and uniform chamfer all around the edge. This gives the stone a more defined look and is perfect for flooring.

Brushed: A worn-down leather look obtained by brushing the stone with a course rotary-type wire brush.

Bullnose edge:
Convex rounding of a stone member, such as a stair tread.

Bush hammered:
A mechanical process which produces a rough, pockmarked texture that resembles naturally weathered rock. Textures vary from subtle to rough.

Chisselled edge:
A process of mechanically chipping the tile edge, thus giving the stone a rustic, aged appearance.

Cross cut:
The process of cutting the initial block of stone parallel to the natural bedding plane. The effect is a mottled or cloud like appearance.

Filled:
Filling stone is a process applied predominantly to travertine. This is when the small holes on the surface of the material are filled with a similar coloured resin or cement.

Hand bevelled:
The square edge profile is softened by a sandpaper. Suitable for soft stones like limestones.

Honed:
A honed surface provides a flat, matte or satin finish creating a more informal and softer look. This finish is created by stopping short of the last stage of polishing. A honed finish shows fewer scratches, and requires very little maintenance.

Limestone:
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite. In some cases the calcium carbonate may have been directly precipitated from the sea-water, but much more commonly it is formed from the shells of sea creatures. These shells may be whole or broken into fine particles It is not uncommon for water percolating through limestone to cause the calcium carbonate to recrystallise and form limestone which is very hard and in which the finer shell material has been destroyed.

Marble:
Marble is a metamorphic rock resulting from regional or, rarely, contact metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks (either limestone or dolomite rock) or metamorphism of older marble.The temperatures and pressures necessary to form marble usually destroy any fossils and sedimentary textures present in the original rock. Marble is a very dense stone that readily lends itself to a polished finish.


Pillowed edge: A pilowed edge gives the stone a smooth standardised curve around the perimeter of the stone.

Polished:
The finest and smoothest finish available in stone, generally only possible on hard, dense materials. Or, a glossy finish which brings out the full color and character of the stone.


Sandblasted:
Coarse plane surface produced by blasting with an abrasive; coarseness varies with type of preparatory finish and grain structure of the stone.

Slate:
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. Slate is frequently grey in colour especially when seen en masse covering roofs. However, slate occurs in a variety of colours even from a single locality. Slate tiles are often used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs, walkways, and wall cladding. Tiles are installed and set on mortar and grouted along the edges.

Split face:
Stone on which the face has been broken to an approximate plane and gives you a rough texture. This finish is typically achieved by hand cutting.

Straight edge: A polished straight 90- degree edge creates a more modern and clean look.

Travertine: Dense, banded rock composed of calcium carbonate, CaCO3. Formed by rapid chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution in surface and ground waters, it is a variety of limestone that has a light colour and takes a good polish. It is often used for walls and interior decorations in public buildings and as a paving stone.

Tumbled: A form of a antique stone delivers slightly pitted surface, and broken, rounded edges and corners, simulating natural wear over time. There are several methods used to achieve the tumbled look. Marble and travertine are primary candidates for a tumbled finish.

Vein cut: A cut into quarried stone perpendicular to the natural bedding plane.

Wavy edge: A wavy edge gives the stone a smooth and randomly undulating edge that is ideal for flooring.